Today, surgery saves hundreds of thousands of lives a year. But getting to this position has not been a simple story of selfless men working tirelessly in the pursuit of medical advancement. It is also a bloodstained tale of blunders, arrogance, mishaps and mistakes. The road to surgical advance has been paved by heroes. However, it has also been littered with lobotomised patients, grave-robbing and neo-Nazis. This new series explores how brilliant surgical breakthroughs, sometimes humorous, often tragic, shaped the evolution of modern medicine. Presented by the medically trained Michael Mosley (multi-award-winning journalist and science reporter for BBC One's The One Show), the series brings the past to life through demonstrations, interviews and challenging experiments. Each week, Michael tackles a different branch of surgery to reveal how it developed. In the first episode, he investigates the story of brain surgery - the most complex organ.